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Lymphatic EC response to VEGFC

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Series:IN_VITRO DIFFERENTIATION SERIES
Species:Human (Homo sapiens)
Genomic View:Zenbu
Expression table:TET
Link to TET:FILE
Sample providers :Michael Detmar
Germ layer:mesoderm
Primary cells or cell line:primary cells
Time span:8 hours
Number of time points:16


Overview

The lymphatic vasculature plays a critical role in the maintenance of tissue fluid balance, the uptake of dietary fats and the immune response. Lymphatic vessels are also actively involved in pathological conditions, in particular in promoting cancer metastasis to lymph nodes and in controlling chronic inflammatory diseases (1, 2, 3, 4). The growth of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing vasculature is called lymphangiogenesis. The main pathway regulating lymphangiogenesis is VEGF-C signaling via its receptor VEGFR-3 on lymphatic endothelial cells. Fully mature VEGF-C has affinity for VEGFR-2 which is also expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) (5). A mutated version of VEGF-C, VEGF-C156S, in which cysteine 156 is replaced by a serine, specifically activates VEGFR-3 but not VEGFR-2 (6). Specific activation of VEGFR-3 by VEGF-C156S is sufficient to induce lymphangiogenesis, as demonstrated in K14-VEGF-C156S mice. Upon stimulation, the receptor dimerizes and is phosphorylated at several tyrosine residues. These phosphorylation sites activate several adaptor molecules along with further downstream mediators including JNK, ERK1/2, PI3K and PKB/AKT, ultimately leading phenotypic changes of LECs. However, the exact transcriptional mediators are not fully investigated yet. These transcription factors might be essential in mediating the effect of VEGF-C and could serve as potential therapeutic targets of the lymphatic endothelium.

References:
(1) Skobe et al. (2001) Nat Med, 7(2):192-8
(2) Hirakawa et al. (2007) Blood, 109(3):1010-7
(3) Hirakawa et al. (2005) J Exp Med, 201(7):1089-99
(4) Huggenberger et al. (2010) J Exp Med, 207(10):2255-69
(5) Joukov et al. (1997) EMBO J, 16:3898-3911
(6) Joukov et al. (1998) J Biol Chem, 273:65599-6602

Sample description

We have used primary lymphatic endothelial cells, which have previously been isolated from human foreskin (7). Cells were cultured on collagen-coated culture dishes in EBM medium (Lonza) supplemented with 20% FBS (Life Technologies), 1x penicillin/streptomycin (Life Technologies), 2mM L-Glutamine (Life Technologies), 25 µg/ml cAMP (Sigma-Aldrich), and 10 µg/ml hydrocortisone (Sigma-Aldrich). For this study, we used cells isolated from 3 individual donors, at low passage numbers (<=6). Cells were seeded at 70% confluency and were starved in EBM + 0.2% BSA over night before stimulation with 1.5 µg/ml recombinant human VEGF-C156S (Kari Alitalo, University of Helsinki, Finland) for 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 80 min, 100 min, 2 h, 2.5h, 3 h, 3.5 h, 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, or 8 h (16 different time points). The 0 min time point of treatment served as a control for the other time points (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Schematic overview of the experimental procedure for the transcriptome analysis. Starved lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were treated with VEGF-C156S (1.5μg/ml) for various time periods from 0 min to 480 min. Treatment was terminated by adding TRIzol and isolating the RNA for CAGE sequencing.

References:
(7) Hirakawa et al. (2003) Am J Pathol, 162(2):575-86

Quality control

Marker gene expression

Marker gene expression Key genes of interest behaved the same way in all three isolates. As expected, there was a rapid induction of the known VEGF-C target gene DLL4 (8), whereas SOX18, a master transcription factor of lymphatic cell identity, was robustly expressed over the whole time course, and was only mildly induced by VEGF-C156S (Figure 2).
Figure 2: TPM expression profiles of individual replicates for the VEGF-C target genes Dll4 and SOX18. An early up-regulation of SOX18 and Dll4 can be observed after VEGF-C156S stimulation.

References:
(8) Zheng et al. (2011) Blood, 118(4):1154-62

Profiled time course samples

Only samples that passed quality controls (Arner et al. 2015) are shown here. The entire set of samples are downloadable from FANTOM5 human / mouse samples



12260-130A1Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr00minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 1)
12261-130A2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr15minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 2)
12262-130A3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr30minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 3)
12263-130A4Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr45minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 4)
12264-130A5Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr00minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 5)
12265-130A6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr20minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 6)
12266-130A7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr40minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 7)
12267-130A8Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr00minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 8)
12268-130A9Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr30minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 9)
12269-130B1Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr00minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 10)
12270-130B2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr30minbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 11)
12271-130B3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC04hrbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 12)
12272-130B4Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC05hrbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 13)
12273-130B5Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC06hrbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 14)
12274-130B6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC07hrbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 15)
12275-130B7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC08hrbiol_rep1 (MM XIX - 16)
12382-131E6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr00minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 1)
12383-131E7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr15minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 2)
12384-131E8Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr30minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 3)
12385-131E9Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr45minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 4)
12386-131F1Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr00minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 5)
12387-131F2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr20minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 6)
12388-131F3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr40minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 7)
12389-131F4Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr00minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 8)
12390-131F5Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr30minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 9)
12391-131F6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr00minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 10)
12392-131F7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr30minbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 11)
12393-131F8Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC04hrbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 12)
12394-131F9Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC05hrbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 13)
12395-131G1Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC06hrbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 14)
12396-131G2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC07hrbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 15)
12397-131G3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC08hrbiol_rep2 (MM XIV - 16)
12504-133A2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr00minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 1 )
12505-133A3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr15minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 2)
12506-133A4Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr30minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 3)
12507-133A5Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC00hr45minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 4)
12508-133A6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr00minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 5)
12509-133A7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr20minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 6)
12510-133A8Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC01hr40minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 7)
12511-133A9Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr00minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 8)
12512-133B1Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC02hr30minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 9)
12513-133B2Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr00minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 10)
12514-133B3Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC03hr30minbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 11)
12515-133B4Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC04hrbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 12)
12516-133B5Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC05hrbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 13)
12517-133B6Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC06hrbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 14)
12518-133B7Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC07hrbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 15)
12519-133B8Lymphatic Endothelial cells response to VEGFC08hrbiol_rep3 (MM XXII - 16)